BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The politics is one that provokes diverse thoughts in the mind of various individuals that are politically enlightened. It’s a play field masterfully equipped for power tussle and the establishment of political authorities.
Crick (1982: 18) sees politics as the “tolerance of different truth” and “open canvassing of rival interest”. Politics implies measures which could and should, in the views of their devisor, be implemented in the hope to create a better society, than that which is already.
In Nigeria, politics is a celebrated game, seeing as it reflect on almost all specters of the society; religion, education etc .
The country since the first republic, as back as 1960, has practiced the multiparty system. The Action Group ( AG), National connal of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), to name a few.
Thee parties were media set in place in establishing and distribution of political power out from one republic to the other.
Dating from the fourth Republic, 1999, to present, different political parties had emerged, and registered with two or three strong parties and third party that is electorally successful.
Election being the mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century; it’s safe to say political parties would be irrelevant in its absence.
One of the most significant and most interesting election, since Nigeria’s inception, both in federal and state realm, being the 2015 elections. Different political parties both major and minor ones geared and prepared seriously for it.
Accordingly in Imo State, the major key parties with PDP (peoples democratic party) producing hon. Emeka Ihedioha APC ( All progressive Congress) Gov. Owelle Rochas Okorocha, for his second tenure, and APGA
( All Progressive Grand Alliance) Capt. Iheanacho. Formed since 1999, the people Democratic Party (PDP) is focused an bringing all patriotic and like minded Nigerians into a single formidable political party capable of organizing and making productive the labour and energy of the people, to work under the umbrella of the party for the speedy restoration of democracy, achievement of National Reconaliation, economic and social reconstruction and respect for human right and the rule of law.
The All Progressive Congress (APC), alliance of the contry’s three biggest opposition parties- the Action congress of Nigeria (CAN),the congress of progressive Change (CPC), the All Nigeria’s people’s Party (ANPP)- and a faction of the All progressive Grand Alliance(APGA).
APC was formed in February 2013. The flag of the party being green , white ( in which a brovom held hard imposed) and sky blue, all which are placed on a red base in which APC white painted acronym is inscribed. Their motto being justice, peace Unity and Slogan “change”.
They aim at fostering unity, political stability and national consciousness of the Nigerian people. To promote true federalism.
All Progressive grand alliance (APGA) founded in 2003, its colours Green, white and yellow . with their motto “ Be your brothers keeper”. The logo is Green, white and yellow with a cockerel in the middle of the circumferenced yellow background.
These parties were formed a founded on different inspiration this could be seen in their choices of slogan, motto and logos. Even representing the party’s belief.
Textile fabrics participated and contributed immensely in the realization of party vision, as can be seen in the rallies held by these parties in Imo State 2014 campaigns. Textile serves the daily needs of people, both in the same. Medium serves differentiate groups of individuals in terms of social class, political denomination and occupation. Textile fabrics have been used since time immemorial to commemorate events and political causes.
Political awareness, being a crucial component in empathy which in turn is part of emotional intelligence, is the process of arousing state of wakefulness to the issues of current happenings, power relationship and system of government in a given human community. Political Education, which is the preparation of a country, especially the young, to carry out their roles as patriotic citizens. Amy govt mann(1987,287) called it the cultivation of the virtues, knowledge and skills.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- How can political awareness be derived using textile fabrics and political colours?
- What is the probability of using textile fabrics as a medium in understanding political parties?
- Of what use is the understanding of colours and symbolism to political participation?
- What is the importance of political awareness in preparing the youths for a better electoral future?
1.5 SIGINFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is significant for numerous documentations. Theoretically, the study serves a documentation on means on how to improve and promote political awareness and education.
Practically, the significance of this study use in the researchers efforts to be use textile fabrics as a visual art representation to educate the public on how it could be used comfortably as a means of education, awareness and participation growth.
The result from the research, will allow reassessment of the competing theories in political awareness and education. The question of the role of political education in the development of a formally or informally schooled youth, is necessary in our understanding of modifying textile fabrics to great beneficial use.
Therefore, its anticipated that the research would produce great interest not only among textile practitioners, but among the general public and serve as an empowerment to youth on the entrepreneurial benefits of textile merchandising
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Use OF Polos, wrappers, flags and banners, all textile fabrics, in campaign rallies as a means of promoting and differentiating parties has aided in political awareness and education of some sort.
However, people accept the textile materials as gift and campaign rewards your thought a proper understanding of the party’s objectives and history. Unfortunately, this action leaves the various parties with mass supporters that are politically illiterate and unaware.
In response to the above problem, the study proposes several options on how textile fabrics can be modified to promote political awareness and education.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The intent of this research is to promote, educate and inculcate political awareness and education by understanding the meanings behind the colours, symbols and objectives of these parties. Its objectives include
- To design awareness materials like wrappers, polos, caps, umbrellas, using significant political colours.
- To promotes political education and awareness using textile fabrics in understanding political parties.
To encourage and fosters political literacy, awareness and participation for better future.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study concentrates on pol8itical awareness, and education strategies, using textile fabrics.the Imo State 2015 election is the case study.
Functionally, the study does not intend to employ any other technique like weaving, blantik etc other than printing.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study was carried out to proffer solution political awareness and education strategies, modifying the textile fabrics as a medium to suit and promote greater political awareness.
The study was limited by these
- Established rime grame for research was a major set back.
- The resources especially, furiances and comprehensive we articles for data collection was another limitation faced by the researcher.
- Getting the appropriate tools and equipments for the functional practice a herculean task in this research.
Theories have been propounded to explain what politics traly is. This literature covers a wide variety of such theories, the review focuses on origin of politics, History of politics in Imo state, political awareness and Education, political parties and meaning behind their colours, brief history of political parties in Nigeria.
Origin of politics
Politics (from greek : Poltika; “affairs of the cities’) is the process of making decision’s applying to all members of each group. The book “affairs of the cities; was rendered in early Modern English in the mid -15 century as “Polettiques”.
[fisher Ames (1758-1808)] stated politicks is the science of good sense, applied to public affairs and as those are forever changing, what is wisdom today would be folly and perhaps, ruin tomorrow. Aristotle Politics is sometimes classified as ‘communtarian; because it places the well being of the community as a whole above the well being of this individual. Aristotle calls hum ans “political animals” because we cannot be fully human without active participation in a city state.
History of Politics in Imo State
Imo is one of the 36 states of Nigeria and lies in the south East of Nigeria. Owerri is the capital and the largest city. Its other major cities are orlu and okigwe. Imo was created 3, February 1976, by Murtala Muhammad, the state is named ofter the Imo River, made up of 27 local governments.
The first military governor of Imo State during the military regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo, was Rear admiral( retired) Ndubuisi Godwin KAnu, (1976-1977). He was succeeded by Admiral Adekunle Shamusidean Lawal, form 1977 till 1978.
Brigadier general Sunday Ajibade Adenitum, took over from July 1978 to October 1979, still under General Olusegun Obasanjo and was succeeded by Samuel ‘Sam’ Onunaka Mbakwe, from 1 october 1979 to 31st December 1983, under the Nigerian peoples party (NPP). Gov. Sam mbakwe was succeeded by yet another retired Army officer, Ike Omar Sanda Nwachukwu, he was in office from January 1984- August 1985.
Rear Adimiral Allison Amaechinba Madueke, born 194, was in office from August 1985-1986 and Commodore Amadi guy ikwechegh, appointed a military governor , from 1986-1989 during the general Ibrahim Babangida regime.
Navy Cimmodore Anthony E. Ogugu was appointed military governor of imo state in 1990 to 1992, during his administration, imo state air port was created. He was succeeded by Evan Enwerem, from 1992-1993. August 1996 during the General sani Abacha regime, colonel Janko Zubairu was the military Administrator of Imo sate from August 1996 till may 1999, when he handed over to the first elected civilian governor, Achike Udenwa.
Gov. Achike udenwa became governor after winning the election in 1999, he was re-elected in 2003 and the tenure ended 27 may 2007.
Ikedi Ohakim, his successor, became governor in may 2007, standing for the proghressive peoples Alliance (PPA), he later switched to PDP . his tenure ended in May 2011.
Governor Owelle Rochas Anayo okorocha, took over in 29 May 20011, under the people democratic party. He was re-elected in April 25, 2015 and remain’s Governor till date.
Political awareness and education.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, or to be cognizant of events. More broadly it’s the state of being conscious of something.
Political awareness is akey component in empathy, which in turn is part of emotional intelligence. One of the penalties of refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors (plato).
The greater one’s level of political awareness, the more one is able to deduce political preference from abstract values (John zaller 2013)
The political awareness is a broad term in political science literature (Delli Carpiri and kectes !996) define political knowledge as ‘the range of factual information about politics that is stored in long term memory”. According to them, appropriate levels of political knowledge are thought to be important to allowing individuals and groups to effectively participate in politics, represent their own needs before the system and develops attitudes that are based on more than emotion. Their work marks a watershed when it comes to political information , political participation, media exposure, interest in politics and education, with political information being the best indicator over all. The importance of political awareness for electoral participation need hardly be overemphasized. Democratic citizens should have a minimum understanding of
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of variables specified in the research problem.
Study adopts the research design of participant observation method, which invites a range of well defined, though variable methods:
Informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of given group, collective discussions,analysis and life instances, it helps the information gain first hand information.
In participant observation, a researcher’s discipline based interest and commitments shape which events he or she considers important and relevant to the research inquiry.
According to Howell (1972), the four stages that most participant observation researcher’s studies are establishing rapport, immersing oneself in the field, recording data and observations, and consolidating the information gathered.
Participant Observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.
Denzin and Lincoln (2003) describe qualitative research as involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world, and it gives priority to what the data contributes to important research questions or existing information.
Participant observation gives an avenue, in this study, for understanding the ideologies behind various political parties and their role in political awareness and education.
The study employs descriptive and exploration methods of research based on qualitative enquiry for collection presentation of data.
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
The area of study in the research, according to Meriam Webster, gathers and relates data on various aspects of a geographical region and its inhabitants as natural resources, economic characteristics amongst others.
This are was chosen because of the gross participation of the various political parties, asides the already dominant one, people Democratic Party (PDP) , in the gubernatorial election.
3.3 SAMPLE ANN SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The researcher sort literature reviewed, scholarly books, newspapers, and journals, as well as informal interviews, seeking information as regards to the various political parties, their ideologies, histories and constitutions.
A sample is a finite part of statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole (Webster 10985)
A sample is simply or subject of the population in contact to the study.
Sampling requires a knowledge of statistics, and the entire design of the experiment depends on the sampling method required.
Amongst the various sampling technique, purposive sampling was employed by the researcher for this study: purposive sampling, also known as judgmental, selective or subjective sampling, is a type of non-probability sampling technique which focuses on sampling techniques where the units that are investigated are based on judgment of the researcher
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
Instrument of data collection are the means by which the researcher gathers data. Participant observation and reaching from journals, literature reviews and scholarly books were tools for data collection in this study.
Where as observations collections were used during the explorations, reading of rated topics unbemed the researcher’s knowledge on the ideologies and role of textile as vehicle for political awareness and education.
3.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
A methodology does not set out to proffer solution, its therefore not same as method. Methodology is instead the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method or sets of the that can be applied to a specific case.
Research is a studious inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of falts, revision of accepted theories.