PACKAGING ELEMENT TO TOWARDS PRODUCT

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SECTION A

RESEARCH METHODOLOY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

This study investigate empirically how packing  as a means of promotional strategy impacts consumer buying behaviour of a product.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The main purpose of this study was to identify the role and the impact of packing elements on the consumer buying behaviour. The buying behaviour of consumer is dependent variable that is influenced by the independent  variables used in the study.

Research design of the study is  of the view that understanding consumer behaviour to packaging  has become a factor that have direct impact on the overall performance of business and profitability (Kotler and Keller,2012).

The study make use of explained variable discovering the market survey conduct to obtaining a reliable result.

3.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION/SOURCES OF DATE

The study made use of both type, of data primary and secondary data. The theoretical frame work is built according to objective and consist of secondary data.

The data for empirical part of the study are collected from interviews and a market survey.

This study collected data from respondents using structured questionnaires in order to find out the packaging elements have an impact on the buying  behaviour of customers.

A system presentation of data obtained form the survey about the role and impact of packaging effect on consumer buying  process.

3.3 METHOD/TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS

Current modern economic analysis involves use of econometric method where appropriate statistics and econometric test can be conducted  to ensure validity and reliability  of data and result for accurate prediction on hypothesis and research questions.

The method of analysis used regression techniques to establish

the relationship between packaging and buying behaviour of consumers. The data regressed estimates will therefore, test for the empirical viability of model using the analytical technique stated above according to (Koutsoyian, 2001).

{Harrison etal.-p.8} Says the mixed methods of data collection enrich and confirm the picture of the researching area. The data collection in case of current includes interviews and survey are interpreted through research method.

3.4 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS-STATISTICS AND SIGNIFICANT

For actual test of hypothesis to establish empirical evidence of investigated variable to establish the relationship between packaging elements and consumers buying behaviour. The coefficient  correlation of regressed data {R2} help to determine the strength of relationship between dependent  explanatory variable.

DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

A structured questionnaire was sent to 460 respondents, but 395 respondent to it. Thus, the respondents rate is 86 percent. Table shows that there were 395 vaild participants who responded to 14 questions of the  structured questionnaire.

Table: 1 Babel of the package is important in decision buying process.
Frequency Percent

 

Vaild Strongly

Disagrees

10 2.0

 

 

 

Disagree 35 9.0
 

 

Neutral 35 9.0
 

 

Agree 188 48.0
 

 

Strongly agree 127 32.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

From the result obtained and presented in Fig. 1 and the disctribution of the respondents response, about 48% agree that the lable is important on buying behvaiour and 32% strongly agree with this statement. Only 2% respondents strongly disagree with this statement.

Table:2 Quality of the packing materials is important during process.
 

 

Frequency Percent
 

Vaild

Strongly disagree 9 2.0
 

 

Disagree 28 7.0
 

 

Neutral 20 5.0
 

 

Agree 170 43.0
 

 

Strongly agree 168 43.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

 

From the table result  obtained and presented  in Fig. 2 and the distribution of respondents responses, about 43% agree that the packaging  material is important on buying behaviour and 43% strongly agree with this statement, Only 2% of the respondents strongly disagree with this statement .

Table: 3 Printed information on the package helps the process of buying
 

 

Frequency Percent
 

Vaild

Strongly disagree 12 3.0
 

 

Disagree 21 5.0
 

 

Neutral 28 7.0
 

 

Agree 120 32.0
 

 

Strongly agree 208 53.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

 

From the result obtained and presented in Fig. 3 and  the distribution of the respondents response, about 32% agree that printed information helps on buying behaviour and 53% strongly agree with this statement.

Only 3% of respondents strongly disagree with this statement.

Table: 4 Language used on the package influence consumer behaviour during the buying process.
 

 

Frequency Percent
 

Vaild

Strongly disagree 22 5.0
 

 

Disagree 50 13.0
 

 

Neutral 35 9.0
 

 

Agree 138 35.0
 

 

Strongly agree 150 38.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

 

From the result obtained and presented in Fig. 4 and the distribution  of the respondents response about 35% agree that the language in fluencies the buying behaviour and 38 percent strongly agree with this statement . Only 5% of respondents strongly disagree.

Table:5 Brand image on the package has an impact on consumer behaviour on buying  process.
 

 

Frequency Percent
 

Vaild

Strongly disagree 15 4.0
 

 

Disagree 81 4.0
 

 

Neutral 28 7.0
 

 

Agree 169 43.0
 

 

Strongly agree 165 42.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

 

From the results obtained and presented in Fig. 5  and distribution of respondents responses, about 43% agree that the brand image has an impact on the buying behaviour and  42% strongly agree with the statement. Only 4% of respondents strongly  disagree with this statements.

Table:6 Innovation and practicality is important in consumer buying process
 

 

Frequency Percent
 

Vaild

Strongly disagree 12 3.0
 

 

Disagree 21 5.0
 

 

Neutral 45 12.0
 

 

Agree 191 48.0
 

 

Strongly agree 126 32.0
 

 

Total 395 100.0

 

 

From the result obtained and presented in Fig. 6 and the distribution of the respondents responses, about 48% agree that innovation and practicality is important on the buying behaviour and 32% strongly agree with this statement. Only 3% of respondents strongly disagree with this statement. Only 3%of respondents  strongly disagree with this statement.

2 TESTING HYPOTHESIS-STATISTICS 

Using Regression Technique to  Analyze data:

EMPRICAL STUDY OF PACKAGING AND ITS EFFECT ON CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

HYPOTHESIS: Product attractiveness does not stimulate con sumer interest in a product.

Table: 7 Regression effects of product  attractiveness  and consumer interest in a product.
Model Unstandardized

Coefficient

B

Std. Error Standardized

Coefficient

Beta

T Sig Level
Constant 2.472 450 5.488 000
Consumers

Pay more

Attention to

Product that appeal to them

 

 

 

 

.224

 

 

 

 

.070

 

 

 

 

.273

 

 

 

 

3.178

 

 

 

 

.002

 

 

 

 

 

 

.123

 

 

 

 

 

 

004

 

 

 

 

 

 

.158

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.838

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.68

Consumers

May not

Notice as product due to its high attractive packaging design

 

R = 346

R2 = 105

Adj = 119

F = 8.541

Overall Sig = .000

{* P<0.01} ** P<0.05}*** P<0.1}

Source : Field survey 2014

The table 7 above summarizes the relationship that exits between the product attractiveness and interest in a product. It therefore, show that there is a direct significant relationship between product attractiveness  and consumer interest. It yielded a coefficient regression, R = 346 and Adjusted R2 = 110 which implies that 11.9 percent of the total variance in consumer  interest is accounted  for by producer attractiveness.

The table indicates that the analysis of variance of the regression analyses produces an F-ration value of significant at 0.05 Level {F = 8.54 P<0.05} which therefore hold that product attractiveness has significant effect on consumer interest in the product. This fending is inline with  Carver Fantoni {2003}which says that packaging is on the foreground in alter-cating attention and causing the purchase.

HYPOTHESIS: Packaging induce consumers patronage and profitability of the organization.

Tables: Regression effect of package design on consumers patronage and

Increase.

Profitability of the Organization.

Model Unstandardized

Coefficient

B

Std. Error Standardized

Coefficient

Beta

T Sig Level
Constant

Package design

Increase

Consumers

Patronage and Profitability

2.087 412 5.067 000
.213 .075 .237 3.833 .005
Package

Design ease

Consumers patronage

 

 

.272

 

 

082

 

 

.278

 

 

3.325

 

 

0.01

 

R     =     401

R2   =     148

Adj  R2  =  161

F    =   12.105

Overall Sig   =  .000

Source  -=  Field survey, 2014

 

The table above summarize the relationship that exists between packaging inducing consumer patronage and profitability of the organization. It therefore show that there is a direct significant relationship between consumer patronage and profitability of the organization. It yielded a coefficient of regression, R = 401 and adjusted R2 -= 161 which implies that 161 percent of the total variance in consumers patronage and profitability is accounted for by product packaging. The table also indicate that the analysis of variance of the regression analysis produces an F = ratio value of significant at 0.05 level { F = 12.105; P<0.05} which therefore hold that packaging has significant effect on consumers patronage and profitability of the organization.

Hypothesis: Labeling does not create consumer awareness of product.

 

Model Unstandardized

Coefficient

B

Std. Error Standardized

Coefficient

Beta

T Sig Level
Constant 3.481 .417 8.348 000
The tagging of a product

Enhance consumer

Understanding of the product

 

 

 

-.167

 

 

 

.089

 

 

 

-.159

 

 

 

-1.888

 

 

 

.061

Consumers

May not

Notice as product due to its high attractive packaging design

 

 

 

 

.346

 

 

 

 

.072

 

 

 

 

.406

 

 

 

 

4.827

 

 

 

 

0.00

 

R   = .399

R2  =.146

Adjusted R2  =. 159

F   = 11.923

Overall sig  = .000

The table above summarize the relationship that exist between product labeling and consumer awareness of the product. It therefore show that there is a direct significant relationship between labeling and consumer awareness. It yielded a coefficient regression.

R = . 399 and adjusted R2 = 159 which implies that 15.9 percent of the total variance in consumer awareness is accounted for by labeling. The table also indicate that the analysis of variance of the regression produce an F = ration value of significant at 0.05 level. {F = 11.023; P<0.05} which therefore hold that labeling has significant effusion consumer awareness of the product.

Hypothesis: Product design does not facilitate consumer purchase.

Table 10: Regression effects of product design and consumer purchase

 

Model Unstandardized

Coefficient

B

Std. Error Standardized

Coefficient

Beta

T Sig Level
Constant 2.280 .509 4.479 .000
An eye –catching design will enhance the purchase of a product  

 

 

.259

 

 

 

.09

 

 

 

.226

 

 

 

2.622

 

 

 

.010

The shape of a product can make consumer try out a product  

 

 

 

.176

 

 

 

 

.086

 

 

 

 

.176

 

 

 

 

2.041

 

 

 

 

0.43

 

R   = .311

R2  = 0.82

Adjusted R2  = .96

F   = 6.725

Overall sig  = .000

The table above summarize the relationship that exist between product design and con sumer purchase. It therefore, show that there is a direct significant relationship between product design and consumer purchase. It yielded a coeffcicent of regression, R  = 311 and adjusted   R = .96 which implied  that 9.6 percent of variance in con sumer purchase is accounted for by product design. The table also indicates that the analysis of variance of the regression analysis produces an F – Ratio value of significant at 0.05 level {F = 6.725; p < 0.05} which therefore hold that design has significant effects on consumer purchase.

3  DISCUSSION ON FINDING

The obtained results of rearch on role   and the impact of package on consumers buying behaviour lay down    these  conclusions that:

The packaging element represent a good means of marketing or Promotional strategy in communications towards consumers because consumer value the element that are embodied on  the package.

The packaging colour helps consumers differentiate their favourite brands, and  for the company it helps to catch consumers attention and   interest. So colo as well as other packaging elements makes the marketing offer more eye-catching and attractive, as well as differentiate it from other product.

Consumer value label in the products because they can get information about the product its origin, its content, its usage etc. The information given in the label also helps companies promote the product in the market.

From the empirical evidence, the information on packaging represents an important component and it can support marketing communication strategized of companies establisher brand image and identity. Printed information contains all the information related to the produce quality, price, and description which help customers identify the product and facilitates the decision producers during purchasing.

The obtained results also show the language used on the package influence consumer behaviours during the buying process.

Market research help the companies to create the right packaging for a product as well as the packaging element that might be importance to consumers. According to.

Alvarez and casielles {2005} organizations intentions should be developing brands in order attract-potential customers and retain in the existing consumers. The scholars have recognized the importance of having loyal customers, because loyal customers lend to buy more frequently, and     are less likely to be influenced by compactors promotion. And communication strategies companies can used this understanding in a very strategic way in order to offer the right products and services to the right customer at the right time.

Finally, from the empirical evidence, the consumer perception and attraction are the key factors for creating a good design elements as market.

Segmentation can provide useful information to marketers about maximizing the packages impact in selling the product. The package and packaging design are the components that provide an advantage for the products in a competitive environment.

 

SECTION B

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS

5.0  INTRODUCTION

The study focused on the impact of packaging as a means of promotional strategy on consumer buying behaviour of a product to increase profitability and the overall performance of businesses. These have been evaluated by addressing some critical hypothesis of these packaging elements.

5.1   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

The mixed research method used in the empirical evidence of the study. The results were acquired from questionnaires. The mixture of these research method assisted in getting a comprehensive view on the packaging design. Its elements and attribute. It   also provided information about consumer perception, different design packages and attraction by different packaging design elements. The main research finding were described and concluded.

According to the information provided by the company’s representative, it is known that the consumers are involved in the process of  selecting the design element. The customers are tested by using different designs in order to examine their perception, preference and attractions.

In the research of current study the consumer perception and attraction were investigated and certain results were obtained. The results were collected through the questionnaires where tow package design were examined. The research provider reliable Figures and numbers as well as the opinions about the package design and design elements.

The package design is very important for decision making process. During the purchasing, the package helps the consumer to evaluate the products. The design of the package communicate the information about the product quality. It materials and ease of use can assist consumer in choosing the particular product. The size and shape of the package are essential elements of packaging design which drive the consumer attention and influence the purchasing decision. The overall product perception is created by the package design having the high value for the customers. The packaging design elements have different impacts on the consumer some of them catch the consumer attention; some of them stay ignored. However, the finding show that different designs attract with different elements.

The package designs used in the questionnaire provide the evidence that design elements such as graphics and image colour, product information, and shape of the package play  different roles.

The consumer perception and attraction varies a lot. People perceive and evaluate package and its design in different ways: where one like the image and  colour, another would not even pay attention to it. The results show that two package designs are perceived differently and attraction elements are evaluated according to the particular package design. The product recognition is also an element of the perception. The two packages are recognized as a product by different elements: one by image and by the name.

Countries and culture play a role in the consumer perception and attraction as well the research shows that respondent from them are attracted by colour graphics/image and product in formation, whereas finish product and people from other countries pay attention to the shape of the package. However, the product recognition is done by images and product name by all respondents from different countries.

The results were obtained from interview conducted with two companies. The research provider valid and reliable information.

The findings show the companies put a lot of efforts into creating an attractive package design. The package design creation is along process which involves the work of different departments and partied. However, the important participant in the process are consumers. They request the new package according to their needs and desires and also guide the package design process by evaluating and perceiving design elements and attributes .

The package attributes such as size, shape and volume are important issue from the logistics point of view. The companied task is to create the package design which will meet the logistics requirements and attract consumers at the point of purchase.

The package design is created according to the countries and target groups. Reference Each design is made to meet consumers needs and wishes to provide positive experience with package and actual product.

5.2  CONCLUSION

Indeed packaging can be said to be an effective marketing or means of promotional strategy; it plays major role in the sale of products and also helps companies to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the market place.

Companied within and across the global market should try as much as possible to consider packaging as valuable asset when making effective product decisions in order to gain suitable competitive advantage in their respective industries.

5.3  RECOMMENDATION

Based on the finding in this work, it is therefore recommended that:

Packaging should be designed to protect the products in transits from the company to target markets {Final Users}, thus packaging should be  durable and strong enough to hold and protect the products from damage when passing through the distribution channel. This require the use of    appropriate materials.

Packaging should be made in such a way that distributor and final users of the products will be able to identify the product contents and ingredients of products so as to reduce the risk surrounding the purchase of the products and for consumers security.

Companied should ensure that the packaging are designed in a way that is appealing and attractive in order to receive necessary attention from distributors and customers.

Packaging should be very attractive in terms of their colour, drawing and label information and writing should be eligible. This can enhance consumer trafficking which leads to impulse purchase thus package are attractive.

Companied should try as much as possible to provide adequate relevant {truthful and uniform} information on packs to help final users of products

Organizations should ensure high product distinction between its products and that of competitors products so as to enhance consumer rating or evaluation of the product.

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